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STEW - Тушеное мясо, рагу

l l/2 pounds shank, neck, plate, flank, rump or brisket
1 small onion
l/3 cup cubed carrots
1/3 cup cubed turnips
l/4 cup flour
4 cups potatoes, cut in quarters
1 1/2 teaspoons salt
1/4 teaspoon pepper
Wipe meat, remove from bone, cut in cubes of about one and one-half inch. Mix flour with salt and pepper and dredge the cubes of meat with it. Cut some of the fat from the meat and heat in a frying-pan. When part of the fat has tried out, add the cubes of meat and brown the surface, stirring constantly to prevent burning. Put this meat, with the melted fat in which it was browned, into the stew-kettle. Add enough boiling water to cover the meat or a pint of tomatoes, stewed and strained, and simmer until the meat is tender (about three hours).
The carrots and turnips are to be added during the last hour of cooking, and the potatoes twenty minutes before serving time. Fifteen minutes before serving time, add the dumplings to the stew.
2 cups sifted flour
1 egg, well beaten
1 teaspoon salt
3 tablespoons melted butter
4 teaspoons baking powder or other shortening
1/4 teaspoon pepper
Sift dry ingredients together. Add egg, melted shortening and enough milk to make a moist, stiff batter. Drop by teaspoons into boiling liquid. Cover very closely and cook for 18 minutes. Makes 2 dozen dumplings.
These dumplings may be steamed in another kettle, as in following recipe.
No. 2.
2 cups flour
1 teaspoon salt
4 teaspoons baking-powder
l/2 tablespoon fat
Sift together the dry ingredients and rub in the fat. Add enough milk to moisten the flour, but do not make the mixture too wet. Roll out the dough on a board, making it about one inch thick, and cut with a biscuit cutter. Put the pieces on a plate in a steamer and steam twenty to thirty minutes. It is better not to steam the dumplings over the stew, as the rapid boiling required reduces the gravy too much. These dumplings may be cooked on top of the stew, as in the recipe above, but they will be lighter if steamed.
3 pounds short ribs of beef
1 cup water
Cut meat into serving portions. Dredge with flour and brown in a hot kettle or oven. Season with salt and pepper, add water, cover and cook in kettle at simmering temperature or in a slow oven (300F.) until tender, 1 l/2 to 2 hours. Allow l/2 pound per serving.
VARIATIONS Use Barbecue Sauce for water.
2. Spread prepared mustard over ribs and use tomatoes or tomato juice in place of water.
3. Add sauerkraut during the last 45 minutes of cooking.
4. Add uncooked pared potatoes, carrots and onions to the ribs about 45 minutes before ribs are done.
2 pounds beef, plate, shank, rump or round
1/4 teaspoon ground cloves and thyme or Summer savory
3 large onions, sliced
1 pint brown stock or boiling water and meat extract
3 tablespoons fat
3 tablespoons flour
2 tablespoons vinegar
1 teaspoon salt
1 tablespoon catchup
1/4 teaspoon black pepper
Brown the onions slowly in the fat. Increase the heat. Cut meat into sizes desired for serving, add it to the onions, and brown. Mix the flour and the dry seasonings. Sprinkle this mixture over the meat. Add the stock, vinegar and catchup. Cover closely. Simmer until meat is tender, allowing at least two hours for shank or plate and one and one-half hours for rump or round.
4 pounds chuck, round or rump of beef
3 tablespoons fat
Salt and pepper
1/4 cup flour
1/2 cup water
Dredge meat with flour and brown on all sides in hot fat. Season with salt and pepper. Add water, cover and cook slowly until tender, 3 to 4 hours. As the liquid cooks away add more, as needed. Serve with brown gravy and vegetables. Makes 8 portions.
VARIATIONS 1. Add uncooked pared potatoes, carrots, green beans, celery and onions just long enough before serving to cook them. They may be whole, quartered or sliced.
2. Use tomatoes or tomato juice in place of water.
3. After browning, pour l/4 cup horse-radish over meat.
4. Before cooking, cut slits in the meat and insert stuffed olives, pushing them into the meat.
3 pounds rump
2 tablespoons mild prepared mustard
Flour mixed with salt and pepper
1 teaspoon celery seed
3 large onions, sliced
1 cup strained tomatoes or 1/2 can tomato soup
3 tablespoons fat
Dredge the meat with flour and brown it in a heavy pan. Brown the onions in the fat; add the mustard, celery seed and tomatoes. Pour this sauce over the meat and simmer three hours or more.

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