A B C D E F G H K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y |
CUT MEAT IN SMALL PIECES and saw or crack bone. This is done to increase the surface exposed to the action of hot water.
BROWN FROM ONE-FOURTH TO ONE-HALF THE MEAT for brown stocks and consommes. This gives added color and improves flavor.
SOAK THE MEAT AND BONE IN COLD WATER for thirty minutes or more before cooking. This helps to extract the juices of the meat.
HEAT GRADUALLY TO THE SIMMERING-POINT (190 -210 F). If stock is to be used for bouillon or consomme or any clear soup, skim at this time. Continue to simmer for three or four hours to insure as complete extraction as possible of the juices and flavor of meat. If the mixture boils, it is not so fine in flavor.
ADD THE SPICES, HERBS, AND VEGETABLES, and continue simmering from one-half hour to one hour. The seasonings are added at this time rather than earlier to prevent the disagreeable flavor of over-cooked vegetables.
STRAIN THE SOUP INTO A LARGE BOWL or other container. If the stock is to be used for clear soups, place several thicknesses of cheese-cloth over the strainer before pouring the mixture through it.
COOL THE STOCK QUICKLY, because quick cooling improves the keeping quality of the soup. Soup should, if possible, always be allowed to become thoroughly cold before being used, since the fat hardens and collects in a cake on top and can be removed easily. Do not remove fat from the top of soup stock until the stock is to be used. It protects the stock against spoilage.
KEEP STOCK IN A COLD PLACE, as it spoils quickly if it is not kept chilled. Spoiled stock, like spoiled meat, is dangerous food.
Using Soup Stock
When ready to use stock, loosen fat around the edges with the thin blade of a knife. Remove the cake of fat. If the stock is jellied, wipe off the remaining small pieces of fat and the edge of the bowl with a cloth wrung out in hot water. If the stock is very soft or liquid, pass small sheets of absorbent paper over the top of the stock.
WHEN STOCK MUST BE USED BEFORE COOLING, skim off all the fat possible. Most of the remainder of the fat may be removed in one of two ways. The first way is to pass over the top small sheets of absorbent paper or blotting-paper. The second way is to cool the soup as much as possible beforehand, then to wrap a piece of ice in a cloth and let it down into the stock. Move the ice around just below the surface so that the fat on the surface is suddenly chilled, and it will gather on the cloth around the ice. This must be done quickly to prevent unnecessary dilution of the stock.
FOR CLEAR SOUPS, take the stock from the top of the bowl, being careful to avoid any sediment which may have escaped through the sieve and settled to the bottom of the bowl. This sediment is valuable as a food and should be reserved for gravies or soups which are not necessarily clear. Clarify this stock if a translucent, sparkling soup is desired.
To CLARIFY SOUP Allow one egg-white and shell to one quart of stock. Crush the shell into small pieces and mix with the slightly beaten egg-white. Heat the stock just enough to liquefy it, if it is jellied. Thoroughly stir the egg-white and shell into the stock. Heat to the boiling-point, stirring constantly, then boil without stirring two to five minutes. Add a cup of cold water and set on back of stove to settle. Strain through two thicknesses of cheese-cloth. The purpose of egg in clarifying soup is the same as in coffee. The coagulated egg gathers around itself the particles of solid substance in the soup, which otherwise would be fine enough to pass through a strainer.
INGREDIENTS NEEDED TO MAKE ONE QUART OF STANDARD STOCK
BROWN STOCK OR BOUILLON.
2 pounds beef (l/4 to l/2 bone)
1 blade mace
1 teaspoon sweet herbs
l l/4 quarts cold water
4 to 6 peppercorns
1 tablespoon, each, of carrot, onion, celery, turnip
1 teaspoon salt
A good stock can be made by using left-over meat scraps and bones instead of the beef specified, and by substituting any available vegetables, such as the outer leaves of lettuce, celery tops, etc., for those given above. After the stock is made, leftover vegetables, cereals, hard-cooked eggs, small pieces of meat, etc., may be diced or chopped and served in the soup.
1 pound lean beef
1 pound veal
l/2 teaspoon sweet herbs
1 1/4 quarts cold water or 1 pint cold water and1 pint chicken stock
1 tablespoon each, celery, carrot, onion
1 teaspoon salt
MUTTON OR LAMB STOCK OR BROTH Use the same ingredients as for brown stock or bouillon, using mutton or lamb instead of beef, and removing most of the fat from the meat.
2 pounds chicken or knuckle of veal
l /2 teaspoon sweet herbs
1 tablespoon, each, of onion and celery
l l/4 quarts cold water
1 teaspoon salt
The liquid in which a fowl or chicken is cooked is also a white stock or chicken broth.
FISH STOCK OR COURT BOUILLON.
2 pounds white fish or 2 pounds head and trimmings
1 1/4 quarts cold water
1 tablespoon, each, carrot, celery, onion
Fish stock needs to be cooked for only half the time required for other stock.
VARIATIONS OF BROWN OR WHITE SOUP STOCK
VEGETABLE SOUP If a clear soup is desired, follow the directions for clarifying soup stock, and then add, to each quart of brown stock, one cup of diced vegetables, raw or cooked. If the vegetables are cooked, the soup needs to be boiled for only a few minutes. When raw vegetables are added, simmer until the vegetables are all tender, adding boiling water, if necessary, to replace any that may have evaporated. Season to taste and serve.
SAGO, RICE OR BARLEY SOUP For each quart of brown or white stock, use two tablespoons sago, rice or barley. Soak sago or rice one-half hour in enough stock or water to cover it. Barley should be soaked over night. Bring remainder of stock to simmering-point. Add soaked sago, barley, or rice and simmer in closed saucepan one-half hour.
MACARONI, VERMICELLI, SPAGHETTI, OR NOODLE SOUP For each quart brown stock, use 1/4 cup macaroni, spaghetti, vermicelli or noodles broken into small pieces. Simmer the pastes in the stock until tender, adding water if necessary.
VARIATIONS OF CONSOMME
CONSOMME PRINCESSE Consomme served with shreds or small dice of cooked chicken and green peas.
CONSOMME A LA ROYALE Consomme served with tiny blocks of royal custard.
CONSOMME JULIENNE OR JULIENNE SOUP Consomme served with carrot, onions, turnips and celery cut into shreds about as thick as a match.
The vegetables should be boiled in clear water before being added to the consomme.