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QUAIL - Перепелка

Quail on Toast
Take five quail, but don't remove the legs, for you would lose all the taste of the game. Wipe them well; string them tight, .so as to raise the breasts. Put a little butter on each, a little lemon juice, and inside each the quarter of a lemon without the peel. Then put a very thin slice of pork, about two inches square, around each quail, with two or three cuts in each side, and string it tight. Let cook on a good fire, and when they are nearly well done, for white meat game must be well done, cut the strings; dress nicely on toast and serve hot. Pour the juice on the quail after having taken the fat off, and put some slices of lemon around the dish, one for each quail.

Quail or Pigeon en Casserole
Take six birds or more, eight small onions, half a small cauliflower divided in pieces, one large turnip cut in pieces, six small French carrots, one beet cut up, six small round potatoes, one cupful green peas, one small bit of cabbage, salt and pepper to taste. Line a tight fitting kettle with thin slices of salt pork larding; tie birds so as to retain shape and put in the kettle ; spread the vegetables over the birds and cover top with thin slices of the larding. No water will be required. Put on the tight fitting cover and set back on the range or bake in a slow oven for three or four hours. Use a French earthen kettle if possible, as it gives the best results, and serve from it at the table.

(Quails in Pastry Cases)

(as it was made in Babette's Feast)

12 quails, dressed and half boned, with heads intact
1 recipe for game stock (recipe follows)
1 recipe for brown chaud-froid sauce (recipe follows)
12 pastry cases (recipe follows)
250 gr fresh foie gras (goose livers)
250 gr truffles, finely diced
4 large truffles, sliced thinly
36 large seedless grapes
3 tbs butter
2 tbs each Cognac and Madeira wine

1. In a heavy skillet melt the butter and in this lightly sauté the goose livers. When they are just beginning to brown, remove from the heat. Let cool for several minutes and dice the livers
finely. Add the diced truffles and moisten with 2 tbs of the Madeira wine. Mix gently but well and with this salpicon, stuff the birds.

2. Wrap each bird in a piece of muslin cloth, folding the head under a wing. Poach the birds in the game stock for about 15 minutes. Drain the birds and set them aside to keep warm.

3. Strain the liqueur in which the quails were cooked. With a spoon remove most of the surface fat, and then, by running paper towelling over the surface, completely absorbe the remaining
grease. Reserve « of this stock for use in making the chaud-froid sauce. Return the other « of the stock to a saucepan, add the brandy and bring to a boil. Reduce the flame and let simmer until
the stock is nearly jelly-like in consistency. Keep warm.

4. When the chaud-froid sauce is ready take the following steps:
a: Transfer the birds to the pastry cases, with the heads proturuding from the cases.
b: Gently spread the birds with the now jellied stock.
c: Coat the birds with the chaud-froid sauce.
d: On the breast of each bird place 1 large, thin truffle slice and three large grapes.
e: Serve on preheated plates.

Ideally served with a red Burgundy wine such as Clos de Vougeot

Game Stock

Note: As many of these ingredients are not always available, one may substitute brown meat stock (see recipe which follows later on) but with the addition of the white wine, peppercorns, juniper berries, and sage as listed in this recipe.

1 1/2 kilos breast or other cuts of venison
450 gr trimmings of hare or rabbit
l small pheasant or partridge, trussed
3 onions, halved
3 medium carrots, quartered
1 1/2 cups white wine
1 bouquet garni (with 3 sprigs parsley, 1 sprig thyme,
1/2 bay leaf, 2 unpeeled cloves garlic and 2 whole cloves,
tied in muslin
6 - 8 peppercorns
l tsp juniper berries
1/2 tsp sage
salt as required

1. Prepare as for brown meat stock (recipe which follows) but deglaze the pan after the meat and vegetables are browned with the white wine instead of water.

Chaud-Froid Brune (Brown Chaud-Froid Sauce)

This may be the most complex of all French sauces as it is dependent on the use of a brown stock, a jelly stock and two other sauces. Although time-consuming, it is not a difficult sauce to
make. As I mentioned earlier, substitute recipes (which may be good but will not be great) may be found in many cookbooks. Any cook who goes all out and prepares the sauce in its original form will feel well rewarded. That is a promise.

For the Brown Meat Stock

1 1/2 kilos beef and veal bones, cracked
1 1/4 kilos beef shank meat
2 onions, halved
2 medium carrots, quartered
2 stalks celery
l bouquet garni (with 3 sprigs parsley, 1 sprig
thyme, 1/2 bay leaf, 2 unpeeled garlic cloves
and 2 whole cloves, tied in muslin)
2 tsp salt

For the sauce brune

6 cups brown meat stock (preceding recipe)
1/2 cup each carrots, onions and celery,
all chopped finely
6 tbs clarified butter or rendered pork fat
1/4 cup flour
3 tbs boiled ham, diced
2 tbs tomato paste
l bouquet garni (3 sprigs parsley, l sprig thyme
and 1/2 bay leaf, tied together)

For the meat jelly stock 0Gֻ
450 gr beef, cut in cubes
350 gr veal knuckle
350 gr veal and beer bones, sawed
into small pieces and tied with string
115 gr lean chopped beef
l calf foot, boned and blanched in boiling water
115 gr each butter and bacon rinds
2 large carrots, sliced
2 onions, sliced
2 leeks, sliced
3 stalks celery, sliced
1 bouquet garni (3 sprigs parsley, 1 sprig
thyme and 1 bay leaf, tied together)
2 egg whites
1 tsp each tarragon and chervil chopped
salt and pepper

For the Chaud-Froid Sauce:

2 cups meat jelly stock (preceding)
1 1/2 cups sauce brune (preceding)
1 cup brown meat stock (preceding)
3 tbs Madeira wine

A: Prepare the brown meat stock:

1. Arrange the meat, bones, carrots and onions on a roasting pan and place in the center of a very hot oven. Turn the ingredients occasionally and let brown for 30 - 40 minutes. Remove
from the oven and drain the fat. Transfer the meat and vegetables to the soup kettle in which the stock will be prepared. Into the roasting pan pour 1 1/2 cups of water, place over a low flame and
scrape off all of the coagulated browning juices that have stuck to the pan. Add these to the kettle.

2. Pour over cold water to cover and bring to a bare simmer. Skim and then add the vegetables, bouquet garni and salt. Continue the bare simmer, partially covering the kettle, for 4 - 6
hours, adding boilng water if the liquids evaporate below the surface of the ingredients. Skim occasionally if necessary. When cooking is completed, discard the bouquet garni and strain the
stock into a clean bowl. With a spoon remove most of the grease and degrease completely by absorbing the remaining fat with paper towelling.

B: Prepare the sauce brune:

1. In a heavy saucepan melt the butter and in this slowly cook the vegetables and ham for 10 minutes, stirring occasionally. Into this mixture blend the flour and, over a moderately low
flame, stirring constantly, cook for 8 - 10 minutes, until the flour has turned golden brown. Remove from the flame.

2. Bring the stock to the boil and using a wire whisk rapidly whisk the beef stock into the mirepoix (the vegetable mixture). Beat in the tomato paste, add the bouquet garni and simmer gently, partially covered, for 2 - 3 hours, skimming as necessary and adding addtitinal stock if the sauce becomes overly thick. When the sauce is done there should be about 4 cups and this should coat the spoon. Correct the seasoning with salt and pepper if necessary and strain, pressing the vegetables with a wooden spoon to press out their liquids. Degrease the stock, first with a spoon and then with paper towelling). Set aside to keep warm (ideally in a double boiler, over but not in hot water).

C: Prepare the Jelly Stock:

1. In a large heavy skillet brown the beef, veal and bones lightly in butter. Transfer to a large kettle and continue to brown together with the carrots, onions, leeks and celery. Pour
over 9 cups of water. With a small amount of water dilute the juices in the skillet in which the meat was browned and add this to the stockpot. Bring to the boil, skim and add the bacon rinds
and calf's foot. Add the bouquet garni, season with salt and pepper and simmer gently for 6 hours, skimming occasionally. Strain the stock through muslin.

2. To the strained stock add the chopped beef, egg whites, tarragon and chervil. Whisk lightly over a moderate flame until the mixture is lukewarm. Carefully skim off all the fat. With strips of paper toweling blot off whatever fat remains on the surface. Bring to the boil, whisking constantly, and then lower the flame and simmer very gently for 35 minutes longer. Strain
the remaining stock through several layers of lightly dampened muslin cloth.

D: Make the Chaud-Froid Sauce:

1. In the saucepan, combine the remaining clear brown stock and the sauce brune. Boil down over a medium-high flame, stirring constantly wih a wooden spoon and add, a little at a time, the
jelly stock. Boil down until the sauce is at a consistency where it can be used to coat the birds. Remove from the flame, stir in the Madeira and coat the birds.

Croutes de Bouchees Feuilletees ((Puff Pastry Cases)

450 gr butter, softened
450 gr flour, sifted
2 tbs butter, melted
2 tsp each salt and lemon juice

l. Sift the flour onto a well chilled marble or wood surface and make a well in the center. Into the well place the salt, lemon juice, melted butter and 12 tbs cold water. With the fingertips
mix these briefly and then, continuing with the fingertips, work the flour in until the mixture atains the consistency of coarse crumbs. If the mixture is too dry, add water, several drops at a
time. The dough should be well mixed but not kneaded. Divide into two equal balls, wrap each in waxed paper and refrigerate for 1/2 hour. (Note: Each of the following instructions should be
followed twice, once for each ball).

2. Lightly flour half of the softened butter and flatten with a rolling pin. When flattened fold in half and continue to flatten and fold until the butter is pliable but not sticky and close to
the flour in consistency.

3. Shape the butter into a l5 cm (6") square. Roll out the dough to a 30 cm (12") square and set the butter in the center of this. Fold the corners of the dough over the butter, turn upside down on
the work surface and press with the rolling pin to flatten. With the rolling pin roll out the dough into a rectangle about 20 x 45 cm (8 x 18"). Fold the rectangle into thirds, turn the new
rectangle 90 degrees and roll out again into a large rectangle. Fold again. Repeat this process so that the dough will have been rolled out and folded 6 times in all. If, during the process the
dough becomes too soft refrigerate between rollings for 15 minutes. After all of the rolling out and folding process has been completed, chill the dough for 2 hours before using.

4. Roll out the dough again, this time to a thickness of about 8 mm (about 1/3"). With a sharp pastry cutter cut out rounds about 10 cm (4") in diameter. Place these on a damp baking sheet.
Dip another round cutter in hot water and mark out lids on the pastry pieces that will be about 8 cm (3 1/2") in diameter. Mark the edges with a knife, taking care not to cut all the way through.
Cook the pastry rounds in a hot oven just until they begin to brown. When baked remove from the oven and remove and discard the lids. Let cool for 10 minutes before putting the birds into the cases.

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