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SANDWICHES - Бутерброды
Making and Keeping Sandwiches
The bread for flat sandwiches should be a day old because it can be cut more easily than fresh bread. For rolled sand- wiches fresh bread should be used. Bread baked in special tins which provide slices that are perfect squares or circles is economical when the crusts are to be cut off, but any loaf of comparatively fine grain may be used.

The Bread
ALL SORTS OF BREADS are made into sandwiches white, brown, rye, graham, whole-wheat, raisin, date, nut, etc. Some- times two or more kinds are used together. Long narrow rolls are attractive when sliced lengthwise, buttered and filled. For picnics, where a substantial filling is desirable, the crumb of the roll may be removed and the hollow filled with sandwich material. Thin salt wafers and crackers are often used instead of bread for paste sandwiches.
FOR FANCY SANDWICHES, to be used for tea or receptions, or as an appetizer at the beginning of the meal, or to be served with the salad, the bread should be cut into slices as thin as possible and the crusts should be removed. Use a sharp knife, so that there will be no ragged edges.

PICNIC AND LUNCH-BOX SANDWICHES are cut somewhat thicker than fancy sandwiches, and the crusts are generally left on.
Butter and Filling
The filling and butter for sandwiches should be increased in proportion to the thickness of the slice of bread.

The butter should be thoroughly creamed before it is used or it will not spread evenly over the bread. To cream butter, place it in a warm bowl and mash and beat it until it is soft. It will then spread well even on fresh bread. Sandwich butters are often made by creaming one cup of butter with one-half cup of cream. One-half cup of butter, creamed, will spread a two-pound sandwich loaf cutting forty to forty-five slices.

RELISHES such as mustard, salt, grated horseradish, chopped parsley, chives and curry may be added to creamed butter for use in sandwiches of meat, tomato, game, chicken, fish, cheese or eggs.

A poorly buttered sandwich is very unpalatable. Spread the butter to the very edges of the slices, on the sides that are to be put together, being careful, however, not to let the butter spread over the edges so that it is untidy. If the slices need not be fitted together, it is often easier to spread the bread before cutting it from the loaf. A pliable knife or small spatula is a help in spreading butter or filling.
Spread the filling on the buttered surface of one slice only of each sandwich. Have the filling come to the edge of the sandwich, if possible.
When mayonnaise is used, not combined with a filling, as in mayonnaise and lettuce sandwiches, it is more evenly distributed if it is spread on one of the slices of bread and the lettuce leaf placed upon it.

Shaping the Sandwiches
Sandwiches may be cut with a knife into triangles, oblongs and similar outlines, or shaped with cutters into hearts, circles, crescents or any preferred design. When sandwiches are shaped with these fancy cutters, the bread should be shaped before it is spread, to avoid waste of butter and filling. Care must be taken afterward, however? not to spoil the shape while spreading. Heart, club, spade and diamond shapes are popular for card parties. Heart shapes are attractive for valentine and announcement parties and for showers. Strips, triangles, circles, crescents and rolled and folded sandwiches are used for teas.

Cut the crusts from a fresh loaf of bread (or if a stale loaf of bread is used, cut off the crusts and wrap for an hour in a cloth wrung from cold water). Spread a thin layer of butter on one end of the loaf and then cut from it as thin a slice as possible. If a filling is used, spread it on the buttered slice. Roll this slice with the spread side inward and lay it on a napkin, with the edge of the slice downward. When all the sandwiches have been prepared, draw the napkin firmly around the rolls and put them in a cold place until needed. The butter will harden and hold the rolls together.

Time Savers in Sandwich Making
In making sandwiches in quantity, route the work so that there will be no waste motions. Have a large enough space for (1) cutting the bread; (2) spreading the slices with butter and filling; (3) shaping and (4) wrapping the sandwiches.
Keeping Sandwiches
Sandwiches are best prepared just before serving, especially if the filling is of a kind that will become limp or soak into the bread. When it is necessary to make sandwiches several hours before they are to be used, they may be wrapped in paraffin paper or a slightly dampened cloth or placed in a stone jar.

Filling for Meat and Salad Sandwiches
When sliced meat is used, a sandwich is easier to eat and generally more palatable if the meat is cut as thin as a knife-blade with several tiny slices instead of one thick one in each sandwich. Fancy butters are excellent with sliced meat.
All kinds of potted and minced meats are used between slices of bread with or without mayonnaise. Salted meat and fish fillings are improved by lemon-juice, chopped pickles or capers. Pastes of fresh fish and meat require high seasoning.
All forms of meat may be used with lettuce or cress, between two slices of buttered bread, with or without salad dressing. The slices should be pressed together and the crust trimmed, if desired. Lettuce may be used in large, crisp leaves, or in "ribbons," to make the sandwich easier to eat. Where mayonnaise dressing is used, the sandwiches should be made at the last moment, and served promptly. Tomatoes and cucumbers with lettuce and mayonnaise make delicious salad sandwiches.

Filling for Tea Sandwiches
The tea sandwich is seldom made of meat, though such things as minced chicken, lobster, or crab meat, and sardines beaten to a paste, are sometimes used for it. The bread is cut very thin and the fillings may be a bit of lettuce spread with mayonnaise dressing, chopped olives, nasturtiums, watercress and similar morsels. An attractive sandwich is made from diminutive Vienna rolls split not quite through and spread with vegetable filling. Another tea sandwich is made by spreading jelly or preserves between two salt crackers. If the crackers are spread with a thin film of butter and crisped quickly in a hot oven, this form of sandwich is really worth eating. Almond sandwiches of all varieties are delicious for the tea-table.

Filling for Sweet Sandwiches
Preserves of all kinds, drained from their sirup, marmalade, jam, jelly, crystallized and candied fruits are used for sweet sandwiches with graham or salt wafers, as well as with bread or sponge cake. The crystallized fruits may be sliced thin and dipped in cream, chopped fine, moistened in orange-juice, and spread between bread or lady-fingers.
Scraped or grated maple sugar mixed with chopped nuts is used with brown bread. Ice-cream is cut in slices and put between wafers or layers of sponge cake.
Tiny tea biscuits make an excellent foundation for sweet sandwiches. They are split and buttered while hot and filled with honey and almonds, cream cheese and jam, or chopped nuts and marmalade. They are best served warm.

Filling for Nut Sandwiches
Pignolias or pine nuts, butternuts, walnuts, hickory nuts, almonds and pecans may all be put through a meat-chopper, mixed, a very little salt added, and spread over thin, buttered slices of brown or white bread. Or, to the ground nuts may be added a little salt and paprika and either salad oil or creamed butter to make a smooth paste.
The salty taste of peanut butter is good with raisin bread. Peanuts may be rubbed to a paste with creamed butter and a layer of chopped preserved ginger added.
Butternuts, walnuts, hickory nuts, almonds, or pecans may be used in equal parts, ground fine, with cream cheese moistened with sweet thick cream and seasoned with salt. Grated American cheese may be used instead of cream cheese and melted butter instead of cream.

An attractive canape plate may be made by cutting twice horizontally, through a round loaf of rye bread. The slice should be 1/4 inch thick and free of crust. Spread with softened butter and mayonnaise dressing. Mark in circles as guides with increasingly larger articles a small cookie cutter at center, a large cutter, a bowl, a small plate, and decorate in concentric rings. Fill the center with caviar, piling chopped parsley or egg yellow at very center. Surround with circle of cream cheese tinted with vegetable coloring pressed from a pastry bag. Continue these rings of appetizer paste and colored cream cheese in accordance with your taste or color scheme. Use red salmon paste, sardellen paste, anchovy paste, shrimp paste, etc. When finished, use a very sharp knife to cut like a pie but do not separate. Serve cold within a few hours.

Slice an uncut loaf of day-old white sandwich bread horizontally, getting 3 or 4 long slices 3/4 inch thick. Spread each slice with creamed butter and stiff mayonnaise, then each with a different chopped salad or sandwich mixture. Chicken, shrimp, salmon or tongue salad; deviled egg, sardine, anchovy, liver or cheese pastes may be used. Stack and cover the top and sides with soft cream cheese piled like frosting or whipped cream. Dust with paprika or chopped parsley. Chill and serve cold within 7 to 10 hours.
Miscellaneous Sandwiches and Sandwich Fillings
1. Raisins worked into cream cheese.
2. Chopped raisins, figs, dates or prunes, mixed with chopped nut-meats and moistened with mayonnaise dressing or lemon- juice.
3. The wellwhipped white of an egg mixed with a cup each of chopped raisins and nut-meats, seasoned with a little salt.
4. Peanut butter moistened with salad dressing and mixed with raisins, dates, figs or bananas.
5. Equal parts olives, peanut butter, celery, mixed with a little salad dressing.
6. Peanut butter mixed with chopped dill, sweet or sour pickles.
7. Cream cheese and chopped stuffed olives.
8. Chopped stuffed olives and chopped nuts, moistened with salad dressing.
9. Cream cheese and crushed pineapple between very thin slices of bread.
10. Tunafish mixed with parsley, lemon-juice, seasoning and a bit of onion.
11. Cream cheese and chopped nuts.
12. Ground boiled ham and chopped pickles or chopped peanuts.
13. Cottage cheese and pickles, olives, nuts or pimientos.
14. Currant jam with pounded walnut meats and creamed butter. Pass with cream cheese. Preserved currants may be substituted in this combination.
15. Boston brown bread with cream cheese or mayonnaise mixed with chopped nuts and raisins.
16. Rounds of brown bread spread with chopped olives, minced lettuce and water cress, tarragon, paprika, parsley and chives mixed with mayonnaise.
17. Pimientos, cucumbers and onion or chives, minced, mixed with mayonnaise and spread on buttered entire-wheat bread.
18. Green pepper, pimiento and olives with mayonnaise.
19. Boston brown bread with minced corned beef seasoned with mustard and rubbed to a paste.
20. Cream cheese used with chopped parsley, pimientos and mayonnaise, chopped nuts, sliced sugared bananas, crushed pineapple, chopped or sliced olives, shredded sliced apples. The cheese may be rubbed with butter or the creamed butter may be spread on the bread.

Look also CHEESE SANDWICHES and other articles

Suggestions for Breakfast Sandwiches
Poached egg on toast is an open-faced sandwich. Rolls split, toasted, and buttered, with broiled tender bacon placed between them, or bacon between crisply toasted slices of well buttered corn bread are other forms of breakfast sandwiches.
Creamed oysters on toast, scrambled eggs on buttered toast spread with anchovy paste, creamed codfish between two slices of buttered toast are all in the breakfast category of sandwiches. To make a variation of French toast that takes it out of the sweet and puts it into the meat class, spread buttered slices of bread with deviled ham, put the slices together in twos, dip them into a mixture of egg and milk in proportion of two eggs to one cup of milk, and then saute the slices in butter until they are nicely brown on both sides.
Old fashioned country sausage may be cut in thin rounds, fried a delicate brown and served between hot, savory pancakes of the same size as the sausage slices.

Vietnamese Sandwiches
1 clove garlic, crushed
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/4 cup rice wine vinegar
1 teaspoon sugar
1/2 cup carrot, peeled and grated
1/3 cup thinly sliced white onion
1 to 2 tablespoons jalapeno chile, finely chopped
1 - 16" long baguette
4 teaspoons low-fat mayonnaise
3/4 pound cooked chicken breast or pork tenderloin, sliced
1 tablespoon fresh lime juice
1/2 teaspoon five-spice powder
1/2 cup fresh cilantro
With chef's knife, mash garlic and salt into a paste. Transfer to a mixing bowl and add vinegar and sugar, stirring to dissolve. Add carrots, onions and chilies. Toss to coat. Set aside. Slice baguette into 4 equal lengths. Split each piece horizontally. Spread cut sides with mayonnaise. Arrange the meat on the 4 bottom halves. sprinkle with lime juice and 5-spice powder. Top with the carrot salad and a shower of cilantro leaves. Cover with bread tops and serve.

Marmite Sandwiches (Recipe of Love)
Take Marmite and three times as much butter (some people may prefer a stronger taste of Marmite, and in that case take equal quantities) and mix to a paste. Spread sliced of bread together, and make small sandwiches. Chopped cress or lettuce may be added. These sandwiches are most delicious, and very quickly made. Raw grated carrot may be sprinkled thinly between the slices – in place of cress – or extremely thin slices of cucumber.
(Source: Recipes of Love by Sally Evans, Tandem Books Limited 1966)

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