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BREAD - Хлеб

Focaccia is a flat Italian bread typically seasoned with herbs and olive oil
Focaccia Versiliese
2 Teaspoon dried yeast
1 Cup warm water
1 Tablespoon olive oil
1 Tablespoon rosemary, chopped
4 sage leaves, torn
3 1/2 Ounce olives, pitted
2 Tablespoon garlic, minced
2 Cup unbleached all-purpose flour
1 Cup corn flour
2 Teaspoon salt
2 Teaspoon olive oil
Stir the yeast into a alrge mixing bowl with the water & let proof for 10 minutes. Stir in the olive oil, rosemary, sage, olives & garlic. Using a wooden spoon, mix in the flours & salt & stir until the dough is thick & smooth. Knead by hand for 8 to 10 minutes until the dough is firm & elastic. Set the dough in a lightly oiled container, cover with plastic wrap & let rise until doubled. Turn the dough onto an oiled 10 1/2" X 15 1/2" baking pan & stretch it to fit. If it won't fit, let it rest for 10 minutes & try again. Cover with a towel & leave until it has half risen, about 30 minutes. 30 minutes before baking, preheat oven to 400F. Just before baking, dimple the top of the dough with your fingertips & sprinkle with some extra salt & 2 ts of oil. Bake for 25 to 30 minutes until golden. Slide off baking sheet onto a rack & let cool for a few minutes before eating warm or at room temperature.
VARIATION: Focaccia Dolce. Substitute 2 oz raisins & 1 oz pine nuts for the olives, herbs & garlic. Soak the raisins in warm water for 30 minutes before using & toast the pine nuts.
Basic Italian Bread
1/2 Teas. Active Dry Yeast
1 Cup Lukewarm water
2 Cups Unbleached, All-purpose Flour
Mix the yeast and water together, and then slowly start adding the
flour, mixing well. Cover with plastic wrap and let sit at room
temperature for up to 6 hours. Refrigerate overnight.
2 Cups Warm Water (about 90 degrees F.)
1 Pkg. Active Dry Yeast
5-6 Cups All-purpose, Unbleached Flour
2 Ts. Salt
Place the water in a large bowl, sprinkle the yeast overtop and mix well. Let sit 10 minutes until bubbly. Add the biga, flour, and salt and stir with a wooden spoon (or mix with your hands) until everything is mixed. The dough will be fairly wet and sticky at this point. Cover and let stand in a warm spot for about 1 to 1 1/2 hours until doubled in volume.
Punch down the dough, folding it over on itself two or three times, cover and let rise once more until doubled, about 1 hour. If you choose, you could refrigerate your dough at this time and leave it overnight to prepare the next day.
Turn out your dough onto a floured baking sheet, and without overworking it too much shape into one large or two smaller round or oval shaped loaves, using as much extra flour as needed to keep it from sticking. Slash across the tops of the loaves with a serrated knife or razor just prior to baking.
Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F. and place a casserole dish with boiling water on the lower oven rack. Bake your bread 30 minutes, turn the baking sheet around, and reduce the heat to 300 degrees and bake for another 30-45 minutes. At this point your bread should be golden brown and should sound hollow when you tap the bottom. Allow the bread to cool to room temperature and serve.
Short Method for Bread Making
Scald one and one-half pints milk ; dissolve 1 cake compressed yeast in two-thirds cupful lukewarm water; add two tablespoonfuls sugar; sift two sifters of Sperry flour in mixing- bowl. When milk is lukewarm, add one large tablespoonful salt ; add dissolved yeast to milk ; make well in center of flour, and add milk. Stir with mixing spoon until flour is all taken up, then turn out on board and knead well for twenty minutes. Return to bowl and let raise in warm place, well covered. This will take from two to three hours. When sufficiently risen, punch down and let stand for three-quarters of an hour longer (doubled in bulk). Mold into loaves or rolls, handling the dough very gently. Put in well-greased pans, let raise and bake. Rolls should raise at least one-half hour and loaves one hour. Bake rolls twenty-five minutes and loaves one hour in wood or coal range, or forty-five minutes in gas range. If desired to make this bread over night, use only one tablespoonful sugar and one and one-half tablespoonfuls salt. Bread made by this method can be set at seven o'clock in the morning and should be out of the oven by noon.
If desired to make bread at night, use method as above at night just before retiring, and in the morning dough will be ready to put into pans ; let raise and bake. If dough is made into loaves at seven in the morning, it should be baked by nine o'clock.
Brown Bread
One pint Indian corn meal, 1 pint Sperry rye flour, 1 teaspoon brown sugar, one teaspoon salt, two teaspoons baking powder, one table- spoon butter or lard, 4 pint milk.
Sift together corn meal, rye flour, sugar, salt and powder. Rub in the shortening; add the milk and mix all into a batter. Put into greased tin and bake about forty minutes in a rather hot oven. Cover at first with paper.
Graham Bread Unfermented
One and one-half pints graham flour, one-half pint of Sperry flour, one tablespoon sugar, one teaspoon salt, two teaspoons baking powder, 1 and one-fourth pints milk, or equal parts of milk and water.
Sift Sperry graham flour, sugar, salt and powder together; add the milk, or milk and water; mix rapidly into soft dough, then put in greased tin. Bake in rather hot oven about forty minutes. Protect loaf with paper first fifteen minutes.
Corn Bread
One cup fine white corn meal, one and one-half cups milk, two eggs, one teaspoon sugar, one tablespoon butter, two level teaspoons Baking Powder, y^ teaspoon salt. Scald the milk and pour on the corn meal. Let it cool, then add salt, sugar, baking powder and yolks of eggs and beat quickly and thoroughly together. Fold in the stiffly beaten whites of eggs. Bake in a flat pan in hot oven for about thirty minutes.
Milk Rolls
Sift in a basin three-quarters of a pound of Sperry flour, add four heaping tablespoonfuls corn starch, and one pound salt. Warm two tablespoonfuls butter in one pint of milk, add one compressed yeast cake mixed with one teaspoonful sugar. Pour them among the flour, mix well and allow the dough to rise in a warm place. Knead it and make into rolls, allow them to rise again, then bake in a quick oven for twenty minutes.
Breakfast Rolls
One and one-half pints of Sperry flour, one-half pint of Indian corn meal, (white), 1 teaspoon salt, 2 teaspoons Baking Powder, 1 table-spoon butter or lard, three-quarters pint of milk.
Sift together flour, corn meal, salt and powder; rub in butter or lard; add the milk, mix smoothly into firmer dough than usual. Flour the board, turn out the dough, give it one or two turns to complete its smoothness. Divide it, thus prepared, into pieces the size of an egg; again divide these in half, which roll out under the hand until they are long and half the size of one's little finger. Lay on greased baking tin so that they do not touch, wash them over with milk. Bake in hot oven seven or eight minutes.
Rye Bread
One pint rye flour, one-half pint corn meal, one-half pint wheat flour, one teaspoon sugar, one teaspoon salt, two teaspoons Baking Powder, one teaspoon butter or lard, three-quarters pint milk.
Sift together rye flour, corn meal, flour, sugar, salt and powder; rub in shortening and add milk. Mix into smooth batter. Pour into well-greased tin, bake in moderate oven about forty-five minutes. Cover loaf with paper first twenty minutes.
Hot Cross Buns
Sift together one quart of Sperry flour, one-half teaspoon salt, one cup of sugar, three scant teaspoons baking powder. Rub in one-half cup butter, then add one-half pound cleaned currants, one-half teaspoon nutmeg, one-quarter pound cut citron, one-quarter pound seeded raisins, one-half teaspoon allspice. Beat two eggs, add one-half cup milk, and stir into the dry mixture, adding sufficient milk to mix to a firm dough. Mold into round buns, lay two inches apart on greased pans, brush with milk. Cut cross on each, sprinkle cut with granulated sugar, and bake in hot oven.
English Breakfast Rolls
Roll one-quarter of a pound of butter into a pound of Sperry flour ; then add a tablespoonful of yeast, and break in one egg. Mix it with a little warm milk poured into the middle of the flour; stir all well together, and set it by the fire to rise ; then make it into light dough and again set by the fire. Make up the rolls, lay them on a tin, and set them in front of the fire you put them into the oven, and brush them over with egg.
Raisin Bread
Dissolve a tablespoonful each of butter and lard in a cup of hot milk then add a cup of either cold water or milk to the hot milk to make lukewarm. Sift a quart of Sperry flour with one teaspoonful salt, three tablespoonfuls of sugar, make a hole in center of flour and stir in half a cake of compressed yeast, which has been dissolved in a little luke-warm water; add part of your milk, stirring in the flour, then break in one or two eggs and the rest of the milk ; beat up the dough lightly, which must be a stiff batter. Let it raise all night in a warm place and well covered. In the morning add a cupful each of raisins and currants, two table-spoonfuls of sugar and either some nutmeg or caraway seeds or lemon peel. Make into two loaves, working very little ; let rise very lightly and bake three-quarters of an hour.
Soft Gingerbread
One cup molasses, one-half cup sugar, one-half cup butter, one-half cup milk, two eggs, one tablespoon ginger, one teaspoonful allspice, two cups Sperry flour, one and one-half teaspoons baking powder. Bake in shallow pans or gem pans in moderate oven.
Ancient Gingerbread
One pint of sorghum molasses, one cup (genuine) sour buttermilk, one cup home-made leaf lard, one level tablespoon soda, three-quarters tablespoon ginger, one teaspoon each allspice, cinnamon, one-quarter teaspoon salt, two eggs and Sperry flour to make a soft dough.
Mix lard and molasses, add beaten eggs, then add spice, salt and soda sifted with about one cup Sperry flour and alternate with the milk, beating all well together. Finally add flour enough to make a soft dough. Roll rather thick, cut in fantastic shapes, "little gingerbread men," if to please the little folks, or any desired shape. Have a moderate heat only, as bread should not be baked too quickly.

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